Recent advances in Research on Down syndrome Recent studies explore the neurodevelopmental impact of congenital heart defects on people with Down syndrome. Novel biomarkers for early stages of dementia in people with Down syndrome. Research on altered molecular pathways (neurogenesis, synaptic transmission, neurodegeneration) have revealed new pharmacological targets. Researchers are assessing ways to improve communication between parents and children with Down syndrome. Researchers are testing portable electronic devices designed to motivate increased physical activity among people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) and to monitor their progress. Studies focused on reducing an imbalance between excitation and inhibition in the nervous system have provided some evidence of lasting effects. Research on different interventions during pregnancy has provided evidence of lasting effects on memory and cognition. Researchers are exploring ways to predict obstructive sleep apnoea in people with Down syndrome. Novel tools for cognitive assessment in young individuals and in demented patients.